Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the discharge of liabilities in the normal course of business for the foreseeable future.
The consolidated financial statements include the results of Canoo Inc. and its subsidiaries. Our comprehensive loss is the same as our net loss. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in the consolidation.
Certain amounts in the prior period financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the presentation of the current period financial statements. Reclassification adjustments had no impact on prior year net income (loss) or shareholders’ equity.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2022, the Company’s principal sources of liquidity are its unrestricted cash balance in the amount of $36.6 million and its access to capital under the ATM Offering (defined below in Note 14) and Yorkville facilities. The Company has incurred losses since inception and had negative cash flow from operating activities of $400.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The Company expects to continue to incur net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities in accordance with its operating plan and expects that both capital and operating expenditures will increase significantly in connection with its ongoing activities.
As an early-stage growth company, the Company's ability to access capital is critical. Although management continues to explore raising additional capital through a combination of debt financing, other non-dilutive financing and/or equity financing to supplement the Company’s capitalization and liquidity, management cannot conclude as of the date of this filing that its plans are probable of being successfully implemented. The consolidated financial information does not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
The Company believes substantial doubt exists about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for twelve months from the date of issuance of our financial statements.
Macroeconomic Conditions
Current adverse macroeconomic conditions, including but not limited to heightened inflation, slower growth or recession, changes to fiscal and monetary policy, higher interest rates, currency fluctuations, and challenges in the supply chain could negatively affect our business.
Ultimately, the Company cannot predict the impact of current or worsening macroeconomic conditions. The Company continues to monitor macroeconomic conditions to remain flexible and to optimize and evolve its business as appropriate. To do this, the Company is working on projecting demand and infrastructure requirements and deploying its workforce and other resources accordingly.
Segment and Geographic Information
Our principal executive officer, as the chief operating decision maker, organizes the Company, manages resource allocations and measures performance on the basis of one operating segment.
The Company’s property and equipment and right of use assets are located primarily in the United States of America.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates are periodically reviewed in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known.
Significant estimates and assumptions made in the accompanying financial statements include, but are not limited to, the determination of the useful lives of property and equipment, valuation of deferred income tax assets and uncertain tax positions, the valuation of equity securities and stock-based compensation, the recognition and disclosure of contingent liabilities, the fair value of financial instruments, inventory, and the estimated incremental borrowing rates used to assess lease liabilities. These estimates are based on historical data and experience, as well as various other factors that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The Company may engage third party valuation specialists to assist with estimates related to the valuation of the underlying value of its assets, liabilities and equity. Such estimates often require the selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and models, and significant judgment in evaluating ranges of assumptions and financial inputs.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of investments that are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash and which have an original maturity date within three months from the date of purchase as well as savings, checking and other bank accounts.
Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company, at times, maintains cash and cash equivalent balances at financial institutions in excess of amounts insured by United States government agencies or payable by the United States government directly. The Company places its cash with high credit quality financial institutions.
Restricted Cash

The Company had restricted cash of $14.0 million as of December 31, 2022. The restricted cash represents a letter of credit under the Company's Bentonville lease of $9.5 million, refundable customer deposits of $1.9 million, a letter of credit under the Company's Michigan lease of $1.1 million, and certain other individually immaterial restricted cash balances of $1.5 million. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had restricted cash of $2.8 million. The restricted cash represents the letter of credit under the Company's Michigan lease of $1.1 million, refundable customer deposits of $0.9 million, and $0.8 million that serves as collateral for failure to make required payments under the agreement entered into on October 19, 2021 with Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, a Division of Panasonic Corporation of America (“PIDSA”) and Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., acting through its Mobility Energy Business Division (“SANYO”, and together with PIDSA, “Panasonic”) for the supply of lithium-ion battery cells.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at historical cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided on property and equipment over the estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, the determination of which requires significant judgment. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Construction-in-progress is stated at historical cost and is transferred to its respective depreciable asset class once the underlying asset is ready for its
intended use. Depreciation of construction-in-progress begins only once placed into service, over the estimated useful life on a straight-line basis. The Company generally uses the estimated useful lives for each asset category as follows:
Assets category Years
Leasehold improvements Shorter of lease term or estimated useful life
Tooling 5 years
Furniture and fixtures 5 years
Machinery and equipment 3 years
Computer hardware and software 3 years
Vehicles 3 years
On January 1, 2018, the Company early adopted ASC No. 842, Leases (“ASC 842”), on a modified retrospective basis at the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception if the Company concludes that the contract is in the scope of ASC 842 and the Company has the right to control the identified asset. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, and operating lease liabilities are included in accrued expenses and operating lease liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.
The operating lease ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. The operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company estimates an incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated market rate of interest for a collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments at commencement date. The operating lease right-of-use asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the lease commencement date. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The determination of the lease term includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option.
The Company has elected to exclude short-term leases (i.e., leases with expected terms of 12 months or less) from the recognition requirements of ASC 842, and has elected to account for lease and certain non-lease components as a single component.
Refer to Note 10 for additional information regarding the Company's operating leases.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the carrying value of its long-lived assets, consisting primarily of property and equipment and lease ROU assets, annually or when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. Such events or changes in circumstances may include a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used, a significant change in legal factors or in the business climate, a significant deterioration in the amount of revenue or cash flows expected to be generated from a group of assets, a current expectation that, more likely than not a long-lived asset will be sold or otherwise disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life, or any other significant adverse change that would indicate that the carrying value of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. The Company performs impairment testing at the asset group level that represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. If events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable and the expected undiscounted future cash flows attributable to the asset group are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, an impairment loss equal to the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value is recorded. To date, the Company has not recorded any impairment losses on long-lived assets.
Income Taxes
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and
tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on examination by the tax authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit is measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, which provides a single authoritative definition of fair value, sets out a framework for measuring fair value and expands on required disclosures about fair value measurement. Fair value represents the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company uses the following hierarchy in measuring the fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, focusing on the most observable inputs when available:
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Observable inputs other than Level 1 quoted prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets and liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 - Valuations are based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement of the assets or liabilities. Inputs reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.
To the extent that the valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company’s financial assets and liabilities not measured at fair value on a recurring basis include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, short-term debt, accounts payable, and other current liabilities and are reflected in the financial statements at cost. Cost approximates fair value for these items due to their short-term nature.
Contingent Earnout Shares Liability

The Company has a contingent obligation to issue shares of Common Stock to certain stockholders and employees upon the achievement of certain market share price milestones within specified periods (the “Earnout Shares”). The Company determined that the right to Earnout Shares represents as a contingent liability that meets the definition of a derivative and recognized it on the balance sheet at its fair value upon the grant date. The right to Earnout Shares is remeasured at fair value each period through earnings. The fair value is determined using Level 3 inputs, since estimating the fair value of this contingent liability requires the use of significant and subjective inputs that may and are likely to change over the duration of the liability with related changes in internal and external market factors. The tranches were valued using a Monte Carlo simulation of the stock prices using an expected volatility assumption based on the historical volatility of the price of the Company’s stock and implied volatility derived from the price of exchange traded options on the Company’s stock. Upon the occurrence of a bankruptcy or liquidation, any unissued Earnout Shares would be fully issued regardless of whether the share price target has been met.
Research and Development Expenses, excluding Depreciation
Research and development expenses, excluding depreciation consists of salaries, employee benefits and expenses for design and engineering, stock-based compensation, as well as materials and supplies used in research and development.
In addition, research and development expenses include fees for consulting and engineering services from third party vendors.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses, excluding Depreciation
The principal components of our selling, general and administrative expenses are salaries, wages, benefits and bonuses paid to our employees; stock-based compensation; travel and other business expenses; and professional services fees including consulting, legal, audit and tax services.
Depreciation Expense
Depreciation is provided on property and equipment over the estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. Upon retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed of and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the loss from operations. No depreciation expense is allocated to research and development and general and administrative expense.
Loss Contingencies
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, and penalties and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs for loss contingencies are expensed as incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation awards granted to employees and directors based on the awards’ estimated grant date fair value. The Company estimates the fair value of its Common Stock options using the black-scholes-merton option-pricing model. For stock-based awards that vest solely based on continued service (“service-only vesting conditions”), the resulting fair value is recognized under the graded vesting method over the requisite service period, which is usually the vesting period and generally four years. The Company recognizes the fair value of stock-based awards which contain performance conditions using the graded vesting method, when it is probable the performance condition will be met. The Company recognizes the fair value of stock-based awards which contain market conditions, such as stock price milestones, by simulating a range of possible future stock prices for the Company over the performance period using a Monte-Carlo simulation model to determine the grant date fair value. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. The Company classifies stock-based compensation expense in its consolidated statement of operations in the same manner in which the award recipient’s payroll costs are classified.
The Company estimates the fair value of RSUs based on the market price of our Common Stock underlying the awards on the grant date. Fair value for awards with our stock price performance metrics is calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation model, which incorporates stock price correlation and other variables over the time horizons matching the performance periods.

Convertible Debt

The Company accounts for convertible debt that does not meet the criteria for equity treatment in accordance with the guidance contained in ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. Accordingly, the Company elected to classify the convertible debt as a liability at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The Company classifies convertible debt based on the re-payment terms and conditions. Any discounts on the convertible debt and costs incurred upon issuance of the convertible debt are amortized to interest expense over the terms of the related convertible debt. Convertible debt is also analyzed for the existence of embedded derivatives, which may require bifurcation from the convertible debt and separate accounting treatment. Refer to Note 9 for information regarding convertible debt.


The Company determines the accounting classification of warrants it issues as either liability or equity classified by first assessing whether the warrants meet liability classification in accordance with ASC 480-10, Accounting for Certain
Financial Instruments with Characteristics of both Liabilities and Equity ("ASC 480"), then in accordance with ASC 815-40 ("ASC 815"), Accounting for Derivative Financial Instruments Indexed to, and Potentially Settled in, a Company’s Own Stock. Under ASC 480, warrants are considered liability classified if the warrants are mandatorily redeemable, obligate the Company to settle the warrants or the underlying shares by paying cash or other assets, or warrants that must or may require settlement by issuing variable number of shares. If warrants do not meet liability classification under ASC 480, the Company assesses the requirements under ASC 815, which states that contracts that require or may require the issuer to settle the contract for cash are liabilities recorded at fair value, irrespective of the likelihood of the transaction occurring that triggers the net cash settlement feature. If the warrants do not require liability classification under ASC 815, and in order to conclude equity classification, the Company also assesses whether the warrants are indexed to its common stock and whether the warrants are classified as equity under ASC 815 or other applicable GAAP. After all relevant assessments, the Company concludes whether the warrants are classified as liability or equity. Liability classified warrants require fair value accounting at issuance and subsequent to initial issuance with all changes in fair value after the issuance date recorded in the statements of operations. Equity classified warrants only require fair value accounting at issuance with no changes recognized subsequent to the issuance date. Refer to Notes 16 for information regarding the warrants issued to Walmart Inc. ("Walmart") and Yorkville.
Net loss per Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of the Company's common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for potential dilutive securities. As the Company is in a loss position for the periods presented, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share, since the effects of potentially dilutive securities are antidilutive.