Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim reporting. Accordingly, certain notes or other information that are normally required by GAAP have been omitted if they substantially duplicate the disclosures contained in the Company’s annual audited consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements and related notes included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023 (“Annual Report on Form 10-K”). Results of operations reported for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results for the entire year. In the opinion of management, the Company has made all adjustments necessary to present fairly its condensed consolidated financial statements for the periods presented. Such adjustments are of a normal, recurring nature. The Company’s financial statements have been prepared under the assumption that the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and discharge of liabilities in the normal course of business for the foreseeable future.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the results of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company’s comprehensive loss is the same as its net loss.
Except for any updates below, no material changes have occurred with respect to the Company’s significant accounting policies disclosed in Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of the Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of September 30, 2023, the Company’s principal sources of liquidity are its unrestricted cash balance of $8.3 million and its access to capital under the ATM Offering (as defined in Note 13) and Yorkville facilities (as defined in Note 9). The Company has incurred losses since inception and had negative cash flow from operating activities of $191.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2023. The Company expects to continue to incur net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities in accordance with its operating plan and expects that both capital and operating expenditures will increase significantly in connection with its ongoing activities. These conditions and events raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
As an early-stage growth company, the Company’s ability to access capital is critical. Although management continues to explore raising additional capital through a combination of debt financing, other non-dilutive financing and/or equity financing to supplement the Company’s capitalization and liquidity, management cannot conclude as of the date of this filing that its plans are probable of being successfully implemented. The condensed consolidated interim financial information does not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
The Company believes substantial doubt exists about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for twelve months from the date of issuance of our financial statements.
Macroeconomic Conditions
Current adverse macroeconomic conditions, including but not limited to heightened inflation, slower growth or recession, changes to fiscal and monetary policy, higher interest rates, currency fluctuations, challenges in the supply chain could negatively affect our business.
Ultimately, the Company cannot predict the impact of current or worsening macroeconomic conditions. The Company continues to monitor macroeconomic conditions to remain flexible and to optimize and evolve its business as appropriate. To do this, the Company is working on projecting demand and infrastructure requirements and deploying its workforce and other resources accordingly.
Property and Equipment, net
Construction-in-progress is stated at historical cost and is transferred to its respective depreciable asset class once the underlying asset is ready for its intended use. Depreciation of construction-in-progress begins only once placed into service, over the estimated useful life on a straight-line basis. Useful life determination requires significant judgment.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, which provides a single authoritative definition of fair value, sets out a framework for measuring fair value and expands on required disclosures about fair value measurement. Fair value represents the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company uses the following hierarchy in measuring the fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, focusing on the most observable inputs when available:
Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 Observable inputs other than Level 1 quoted prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets and liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 Valuations are based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement of the assets or liabilities. Inputs reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.
Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
The Company's financial assets and liabilities not measured at fair value on a recurring basis include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, short-term debt, accounts payable, and other current liabilities and are reflected in the financial statements at cost. Cost approximates fair value for these items due to their short-term nature.
Contingent Earnout Shares Liability
The Company has a contingent obligation to issue shares of Common Stock to certain stockholders and employees upon the achievement of certain market share price milestones within specified periods (the “Earnout Shares”). The Company determined that the right to Earnout Shares represents a contingent liability that meets the definition of a derivative and recognized it on the balance sheet at its fair value upon the grant date. The right to Earnout Shares is remeasured at fair value each period through earnings. The fair value is determined using Level 3 inputs, since estimating the fair value of this contingent liability requires the use of significant and subjective inputs that may and are likely to change over the duration of the liability with related changes in internal and external market factors. The tranches were valued using a Monte Carlo simulation of the stock prices using an expected volatility assumption based on the historical volatility of the price of the Company’s stock and implied volatility derived from the price of exchange traded options on the Company’s stock. Upon the occurrence of a bankruptcy or liquidation, any unissued Earnout Shares would be fully issued regardless of whether the share price target has been met.
Convertible Debt
The Company accounts for convertible debt that does not meet the criteria for equity treatment in accordance with the guidance contained in ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments
and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. Accordingly, the Company elected to classify the April Convertible Debenture (defined below) as a liability at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The Company classifies convertible debt based on the re-payment terms and conditions. Any discounts or premiums on the convertible debt and costs incurred upon issuance of the convertible debt are amortized to interest expense over the terms of the related convertible debt. Convertible debt is also analyzed for the existence of embedded derivatives, which may require bifurcation from the convertible debt and separate accounting treatment. For derivative financial instruments that are accounted for as assets or liabilities, the derivative instrument is initially recorded at its fair value and is then re-valued at each reporting date, with changes in the fair value reported in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The variable conversion feature of the convertible debenture is considered a derivative. Refer to Note 9 for further information.
The Company has elected the fair value option to account for the July Convertible Debenture, the August Convertible Debenture and the September Convertible Debenture (each, as defined in Note 9). The Company recorded the Convertible Debentures (as defined in Note 9) at fair value upon issuance. The Company records changes in fair value in the condensed consolidated statements of operations, with the exception of changes in fair value due to instrument-specific credit risk which, if present, will be recorded as a component of other comprehensive income. Interest expense related to the Convertible Debentures is included in the changes in fair value. As a result of applying the fair value option, direct costs and fees related to the Convertible Debentures were expensed as incurred.

The Company determines the accounting classification of warrants it issues as either liability or equity classified by first assessing whether the warrants meet liability classification in accordance with ASC 480-10, Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Characteristics of both Liabilities and Equity ("ASC 480"), then in accordance with ASC 815-40 ("ASC 815"), Accounting for Derivative Financial Instruments Indexed to, and Potentially Settled in, a Company’s Own Stock. Under ASC 480, warrants are considered liability classified if the warrants are mandatorily redeemable, obligate the Company to settle the warrants or the underlying shares by paying cash or other assets, or warrants that must or may require settlement by issuing variable number of shares. If warrants do not meet liability classification under ASC 480, the Company assesses the requirements under ASC 815, which states that contracts that require or may require the issuer to settle the contract for cash are liabilities recorded at fair value, irrespective of the likelihood of the transaction occurring that triggers the net cash settlement feature. If the warrants do not require liability classification under ASC 815, and in order to conclude equity classification, the Company also assesses whether the warrants are indexed to its common stock and whether the warrants are classified as equity under ASC 815 or other applicable GAAP. After all relevant assessments, the Company concludes whether the warrants are classified as liability or equity. Liability classified warrants require fair value accounting at issuance and subsequent to initial issuance with all changes in fair value after the issuance date recorded in the statements of operations. Equity classified warrants only require fair value accounting at issuance with no changes recognized subsequent to the issuance date. Refer to Note 15 for information regarding the warrants issued.

Revenue Recognition

The Company applies ASC 606, which governs how the Company recognizes revenue. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when the Company transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenue pursuant to the five-step framework contained in ASC 606: (i) identify the contract with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligations.

Revenues include vehicle revenues resulting from the delivery of our vehicles to our customers as well as revenues derived from other streams including battery modules, and engineering services to our customers. The Company recognizes revenue related to the vehicles at a point in time when the customer obtains control of the vehicle either upon completion of delivery or upon pick up of the vehicle by the customer. The Company recognizes revenue from the provision of consulting services on a project basis. The Company's fixed price contracts related to these services contain a single performance obligation. Revenue for these services is recognized at a point in time as different phases of the project are delivered.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenues primarily relates to the cost of production of vehicles and includes direct parts, material and labor costs, machinery and tooling depreciation, amortization of capitalized manufacturing costs, shipping and logistics costs, adjustments to write down the carrying value of inventory when it exceeds its estimated net realizable value
(“NRV”) as needed, and adjustments for excess and obsolete inventory, as needed. Cost of revenue also includes materials, labor, and other direct costs related to the development of battery modules and provision of engineering services.

Net loss per Share
Basic and diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of the Company's common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for potential dilutive securities. As the Company is in a loss position for the periods presented, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share, since the effects of potentially dilutive securities are antidilutive.