Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
A summary of the significant accounting policies followed by the Company in the preparation of the accompanying financial statements is set forth below.
Immaterial Correction of Prior Period Financial Statements
Subsequent to issuance of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, on April 12, 2021, the SEC Division of Corporation of Finance released Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”) (the “Statement”). Upon review and analysis of the Statement, management determined that the Company’s private placement warrants issued in connection with HCAC's IPO on March 5, 2019 do not meet the scope exception from derivative accounting prescribed by ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. Accordingly, the private placement warrants should have been recognized by the Company at fair value as of the Closing Date and classified as a liability, rather than equity in the Company’s previously reported consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020. Thereafter, the change in fair value of the outstanding private placement warrants should have been recognized as a gain (loss) within other (expense) income each reporting period in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. The fair value of the private placement warrants as of the Closing Date on December 21, 2020 and December 31, 2020 amounted to $9.7 million and $6.6 million, respectively. The change in fair value from the Closing Date through December 31, 2020 amounted to a gain of $3.1 million.
The impact of the misstatement as of December 31, 2020 resulted in an understatement of the private placement warrants liability of $6.6 million, and an overstatement of accumulated deficit and additional paid-in capital of $3.1 million and $9.7 million respectively.
Accordingly, management is correcting the relevant financial statements and related footnotes as of December 31, 2020 within these consolidated financial statements. Management has evaluated the materiality of these misstatements based on an analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors and concluded they were not material to the prior period financial statements, individually or in aggregate.
The following tables reflect the impact of the immaterial correction on the Company's previously reported consolidated balance sheet, consolidated statement of operations, consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity (deficit) and consolidated statement of cash flows (in thousands) as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Other than changes made to reflect the impact of the recognition of the fair value of the private placement warrants liability at the Closing Date to additional paid-in capital and the subsequent remeasurement of the fair value of the warrant liability at December 31, 2020 to accumulated deficit, there have been no changes to the Consolidated Statement of Stockholders’ (Deficit) Equity (in thousands).
Retroactive Application of Recapitalization
As discussed in Note 4, our Business Combination on December 21, 2020 is accounted for as a recapitalization of equity structure. Pursuant to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”), we recasted the Company’s consolidated statements of stockholders' (deficit) equity from December 31, 2018 to December 21, 2020, the total stockholder’s equity (deficit) within the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 and the weighted average outstanding shares basic and diluted for the year ended December 31, 2019 by applying the recapitalization retroactively.
Retroactive Application of Recapitalization to Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ (Deficit) Equity
As of the Business Combination on December 21, 2020, all 110.3 million shares of Legacy Canoo A series and A-1 series redeemable convertible preference shares of Legacy Canoo (“A/A-1 Shares”) were automatically exchanged into
Legacy Canoo ordinary shares at a 1:1 ratio, which were converted again to our Common Stock at a conversion ratio of 1.239434862. The 110.3 million shares consisted of three previous conversions from the Legacy Canoo’s Angel series and Seed series redeemable convertible preference shares and convertible debt.
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with GAAP on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the discharge of liabilities in the normal course of business for the foreseeable future.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2021, the Company’s principal source of liquidity is its unrestricted cash balance in the amount of $224.7 million. The Company has incurred losses since inception and had negative cash flow from operating activities of $300.8 million and $107.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company expects to continue to incur net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities in accordance with its
operating plan and expects that both capital and operating expenditures will increase significantly in connection with its ongoing activities. As an early-stage growth company, the Company’s ability to access capital is critical. Management plans to raise additional capital through a combination of debt financing, other non-dilutive financing and/or equity financing. To the extent the Company is unsuccessful at doing so, management has the intent and ability to use its discretion to delay, scale back, or abandon future expenditures.
The consolidated financial statements include the results of Canoo Inc. and its subsidiaries. Our comprehensive loss is the same as our net loss. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in the consolidation.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2021, there has been increasing availability and administration of vaccines against COVID-19 in many parts of the world, as well as an easing of restrictions on social, business, travel and government activities and functions. On the other hand, virus variants, infection rates and regulations continue to fluctuate in various regions and there are ongoing global impacts resulting from the pandemic, including challenges and increases in costs for logistics and supply chains and intermittent supplier delays. The Company has also previously been affected by temporary facility closures, employment and compensation adjustments, and impediments to administrative activities supporting its product research and development.
Ultimately, the Company cannot predict the duration or severity of the COVID-19 pandemic or any variant thereof. The Company will continue to monitor macroeconomic conditions to remain flexible and to optimize and evolve its business as appropriate. To do this, the Company plans to project demand and infrastructure requirements globally and to deploy its workforce and other resources accordingly.
Segment and Geographic Information
Our principal executive officer, as the chief operating decision maker, organizes the Company, manages resource allocations and measures performance on the basis of one operating segment.
The Company’s property and equipment and right of use assets are located primarily in the United States of America.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates are periodically reviewed in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known.
On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to i) useful lives of property and equipment; ii) the realization of deferred tax assets and estimates of tax reserves; iii) the valuation of equity securities and stock-based compensation; iv) the recognition and disclosure of contingent liabilities; and v) the fair value of financial instruments. These estimates are based on historical data and experience, as well as various other factors that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The Company may engage third party valuation specialists to assist with estimates related to the valuation of the underlying value of its assets, liabilities and equity. Such estimates often require the selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and models, and significant judgment in evaluating ranges of assumptions and financial inputs.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of investments that are highly liquid, readily convertible to cash and which have an original maturity date within three months from the date of purchase as well as savings, checking and other bank accounts.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company, at times, maintains cash and cash equivalent balances at financial institutions in excess of amounts insured by United States government agencies or payable by the United States government directly. The Company places its cash with high credit quality financial institutions.
The Company had $2.8 million of restricted cash as of December 31, 2021. Restricted cash as of December 31, 2021 consisted of $1.1 million for a letter of credit required under the Company's Michigan lease, $0.9 million in refundable customer deposits and $0.8 million that serves as collateral for failure to make required payments under the Panasonic Agreement. We did not have any restricted cash at December 31, 2020.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided on property and equipment over the estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Useful lives by asset category are as follows:
On January 1, 2018, the Company early adopted ASC No. 842, Leases (“ASC 842”), on a modified retrospective basis at the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception if the Company concludes that the contract is in the scope of ASC 842 and the Company has the right to control the identified asset. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, and operating lease liabilities are included in accrued expenses and operating lease liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.
The operating lease ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. The operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company estimates an incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated market rate of interest for a collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments at commencement date. The operating lease right-of-use asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the lease commencement date. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The determination of the lease term includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option.
The Company has elected to exclude short-term leases (i.e., leases with expected terms of 12 months or less) from the recognition requirements of ASC 842, and has elected to account for lease and certain non-lease components as a single component.
At December 31, 2021, the Company had operating leases in Torrance, California and Justin, Texas. Refer to Note 11 for additional information regarding the Company's operating leases.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the carrying value of its long-lived assets, consisting primarily of property and equipment and lease ROU assets, when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. Such events or changes in circumstances may include a significant
decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant change in the extent or manner in which an asset is used, a significant change in legal factors or in the business climate, a significant deterioration in the amount of revenue or cash flows expected to be generated from a group of assets, a current expectation that, more likely than not a long-lived asset will be sold or otherwise disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life, or any other significant adverse change that would indicate that the carrying value of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. The Company performs impairment testing at the asset group level that represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. If events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable and the expected undiscounted future cash flows attributable to the asset group are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, an impairment loss equal to the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value is recorded. To date, the Company has not recorded any impairment losses on long-lived assets.
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on examination by the tax authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit is measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures ("ASC 820"), which provides a single authoritative definition of fair value, sets out a framework for measuring fair value and expands on required disclosures about fair value measurement. Fair value represents the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company uses the following hierarchy in measuring the fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, focusing on the most observable inputs when available:
•Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
•Level 2 Observable inputs other than Level 1 quoted prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets and liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
•Level 3 Valuations are based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement of the assets or liabilities. Inputs reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Consideration is given to the risk inherent in the valuation technique and the risk inherent in the inputs to the model.
Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The following table summarizes the Company’s assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value
on a recurring basis as required by ASC 820, by level, within the fair value hierarchy as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
As described in Note 13, the Company has a contingent obligation to issue 15 million shares of the Company’s common stock to certain stockholders and employees upon the achievement of certain market share price milestones within specified periods following the Business Combination (the “Earnout Shares”). Upon the occurrence of a bankruptcy or liquidation, any unissued Earnout Shares would be fully issued regardless of whether the share price target has been met.
The Earnout Shares are accounted for as a contingent liability and its fair value is determined using Level 3 inputs, since estimating the fair value of this contingent liability requires the use of significant and subjective inputs that may and are likely to change over the duration of the liability with related changes in internal and external market factors. The tranches were valued using the Monte Carlo simulation of the stock prices based on historical and implied market volatility of a peer group of public companies.
Following is a summary of the change in fair value of contingent Earnout Shares liability and private placement warrants liability for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands).
The Company’s contingent Earnout Shares liability is considered a “Level 3” fair value measurement. Refer to Note 13 for discussion of the Company’s methods for valuation.
Contingent Earnout Shares Liability
The Business Combination provide certain stockholders and employees with the contingent right to the Earnout Shares. Issuances are made in three tranches of 5.0 million shares each upon reaching share price targets within specified time frames. The first tranche will be issued if the share price reaches $18 within two years of the closing of the Business Combination. The second tranche will be issued if the share price reaches $25 within four years of the closing of the Business Combination. The third tranche will be issued if the share price reaches $30 within five years of the closing of the Business Combination. The tranches may also be issued upon a change of control transaction that occurs within the respective timeframes and results in per share consideration exceeding the respective share price target. Additionally, the full 15.0 million Earnout Shares will be issued in the event of a liquidation or bankruptcy. The Company determined that the right to Earnout Shares represents a contingent liability that meets the definition of a derivative and recognized it on the balance sheet at its fair value upon the Business Combination date. The right to Earnout Shares is remeasured at fair value each period through earnings. See Note 13 for further discussion.
Our financial instruments not subject to ASC 820 include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, receivables, accounts payable and other current liabilities. The carrying amounts of these instruments approximated fair value because of their short-term maturities as of December 31, 2021.
The Company applies ASC 606, which governs how the Company recognizes revenue.
Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when the Company transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenue pursuant to the five-step framework contained in ASC 606: (i) identify the contract with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligations.
During 2020, the Company's revenue was derived from the provision of consulting services on a project basis. The Company's fixed price contracts related to these services contain a single performance obligation, which was satisfied in July 2020 when the Company provided the final report to the customer. Revenue for these services was recognized at a point in time, when the project was delivered.
Sales taxes are not included in our gross revenue.
There were no contract liabilities as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Cost of Revenue, excluding Depreciation
Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation, includes materials, labor, and other direct costs related to the provision of engineering, development, and design consulting services.
Research and Development Expenses, excluding Depreciation
Research and development expenses, excluding depreciation consists of salaries, employee benefits and expenses for design and engineering personnel, stock-based compensation, as well as materials and supplies used in research and development activities. In addition, research and development expenses include fees for consulting and engineering services from third party vendors.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses, excluding Depreciation
The principal components of our selling, general and administrative expenses are salaries, wages, benefits and bonuses paid to our employees; stock-based compensation; travel and other business expenses; and professional services fees including consulting, legal, audit and tax services.
Depreciation is provided on property and equipment over the estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis. Upon retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed of and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the loss from operations. No depreciation expense is allocated to research and development, cost of revenue and general and administrative expense.
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, and penalties and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs for loss contingencies are expensed as incurred.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation awards granted to employees and directors based on the awards’ estimated grant date fair value. The Company estimates the fair value of its share options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. For awards that vest solely based on continued service (“service-only vesting conditions”), the resulting fair value is recognized on a straight-line basis over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period, which is generally four years. The Company recognizes the fair value of stock-based awards which contain performance conditions using the graded vesting method, when it is probable the performance condition will be met. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. The Company classifies stock-based compensation expense in its consolidated statement of operations in the same manner in which the award recipient’s payroll costs are classified.
Prior to our Business Combination on December 21, 2020, the fair value of our RSUs is based on the fair value of the Legacy Canoo’s ordinary shares on the date of grant. As there is no public market for the Legacy Canoo’s ordinary shares, Legacy Canoo, with the assistance of a third-party valuation specialist, determined the fair value of the Legacy Canoo’s ordinary shares at the time of the grant of RSUs by considering a number of objective and subjective factors, including the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event and transactions involving the Legacy Canoo’s ordinary shares, among other factors. The fair value of the Legacy Canoo’s ordinary shares was derived from the Legacy Canoo’s total equity value divided by the number of shares outstanding and was estimated using a probability-weighted expected return model, using different probability weightings estimated for public offering scenario, M&A scenario and dissolution scenario. The factors and scenario weighting estimates require significant judgment involve inherent uncertainties, which can materially affect the estimate of the fair value of our RSUs and ultimately how much Stock-based compensation expense is recognized.
After December 21, 2020, we estimate the fair value of RSUs based on the market price of our Common Stock underlying the awards on the grant date. Fair value for awards with our stock price performance metrics is calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation model, which incorporates stock price correlation and other variables over the time horizons matching the performance periods.
For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 total stock-based compensation expense was $108.4 million and $84.3 million, respectively.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef